Resurgence of the Country? How Performance on One Prosperity Measure Trumps Urban Triumphalism

Posted on Mar 15, 2012 by Terry Rephann

In an article entitled Why Some Places Prosper and Others Do Not published in 2009, Andy Isserman and colleagues argued that the conventional measures of economic competitiveness provide a skewed picture of the wellbeing of communities across the United States and motivate policy initiatives that may very well hinder place-based prosperity. Per capita income is a suspect measure because it fails to incorporate regional cost-of-living differences and ignores distributional issues. Economic growth is problematic because it doesn’t gauge improvement in the average welfare of existing community residents. Economic growth can raise or lower average income, and it often benefits in-commuters and migrants rather than existing residents. Therefore, it has an uncertain effect on community wellbeing. From a community vantage point, both the quality and the beneficiaries of the growth matter.

In lieu of those commonly adopted but somewhat flawed measures, Isserman introduced the idea of a “prosperity index” that captures essential characteristics of economically and socially healthy communities. This index was built on four component measures, all of them derived from the U.S. Census Bureau, Summary File 3 (i.e., the decennial census “long form” questions): (a) percentage of individuals living below the poverty level, (b) unemployment rate, (c) percentage of the 16-19 population that dropped out of high school and (d) percentage of the occupied housing units that has one or more of four undesirable physical and financial conditions (i.e., incomplete plumbing or kitchen facilities, over-occupancy, or unaffordability). A county notched one point for each component that exceeded the corresponding U.S. average value for the measure. Therefore, the prosperity index ranges from zero (below the U.S. on all four measures) to four.

When Isserman et al. crunched the numbers and mapped the prosperity results for all 3,140 U.S. counties back in 2000, a surprising and geographically uneven picture emerged. Contrary to what might be expected, the most “prosperous” counties are located in many of the slower growing areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Fast-growing Sunbelt counties generally rated poorly. A notable exception is Virginia, a Sunbelt state where the Shenandoah Valley and northern/central areas of the state fare very well. Isserman focused most of their attention on rural differences. They found that prosperous rural counties had “diverse, vigorous” economies with more entrepreneurship, greater social capital, and higher per capita incomes.


Prosperity by County, Number of Criteria Achieved, 2000

This portrait of a successful community described by Isserman stands in marked contrast to that described by Harvard economist Edward Glaeser. In his book Triumph of the City, Professor Glaeser touts the benefits of urban agglomeration, its accompanying creative chaos and ability to integrate poor newcomers. Such places stimulate productivity, learning, and innovation, and maximize migrant economic potential. Though he does not offer an urban-friendly prosperity index, one could imagine constructing one with weighted variables representing population density, patent activity, educational achievement levels, migration rates, and demographic diversity.

To investigate this issue further, we updated the prosperity index to the most current period available. With the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey available, it is now possible to revise the prosperity index each year using the 5-year estimates. The geographical pattern that emerges for 2006-2010 is not all that different than 2000 with the exception of a more fragmented Midwestern picture and greater geographical diffusion of prosperity.


Prosperity by County, Number of Criteria Achieved, 2010

The values were then charted along the USDA rural-urban continuum (which runs from low values for counties in highly urbanized metro areas to high values for non-metropolitan counties with less urbanization and greater isolation from metropolitan areas). The figure below shows the prosperity values weighted by population for each continuum category.

Prosperity by Rural-Urban Continuum

Non-metropolitan areas generally did better in 2006-2010 on average than metro areas (2.22 prosperity index for nonmetro counties compared to 2.05 for metro counties) and very rural non-metro counties generally do better than less rural non-metro counties. Clearly, lower land rents in the rural periphery and thus better performance on the housing criterion account for this gap. But, this gap also grew from 2000 to 2010 and decreasing housing affordability in metropolitan areas provides only part of the explanation. For the very largest metro counties (1 million or more), about two-thirds of the loss in average prosperity is explained by lower housing criterion performance. For the second metropolitan category (metro areas of 250,000 to 1 million), four-fifths of the regression occurred along the dimensions of poverty and unemployment.

Metropolitan areas are a heterogenous bunch. So, it is worthwhile to take a closer look at the success stories. Generally speaking, the top performers are smaller, slower growth cities located in the interior of the country. Yet several larger metropolitan areas score in the top 50 (Rochester, NY; Pittsburgh, PA; Minneapolis, MN; Raleigh, NC; Cincinatti, OH, St. Louis, MO; Richmond, VA; Salt Lake City, UT; Baltimore, MD; San Diego, CA). And, what about Glaeser’s hometown and inspiration for Triumph of the City? Well, it ranks a distant 245th.

Rank Metropolitan Area Population Prosperity
1 Lewiston, ID-WA 60,249 4.0000
1 Dover, DE 156,918 4.0000
1 Sioux Falls, SD 221,095 4.0000
1 Sheboygan, WI 115,328 4.0000
1 Bloomington-Normal, IL 166,706 4.0000
1 Appleton, WI 222,359 4.0000
1 Lincoln, NE 296,056 4.0000
1 Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA 561,113 4.0000
1 Oshkosh-Neenah, WI 165,032 4.0000
1 Fond du Lac, WI 100,919 4.0000
1 Ogden-Clearfield, UT 526,394 4.0000
1 Colorado Springs, CO 622,809 4.0000
1 Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 552,889 4.0000
1 Wausau, WI 132,644 4.0000
1 Norwich-New London, CT 272,360 4.0000
1 Green Bay, WI 302,755 4.0000
1 Holland-Grand Haven, MI 261,376 4.0000
1 Glens Falls, NY 128,795 4.0000
1 York-Hanover, PA 428,175 4.0000
1 Bismarck, ND 105,488 4.0000
1 Johnstown, PA 144,741 4.0000
1 Fargo, ND-MN 201,499 4.0000
1 Reading, PA 407,310 4.0000
1 Olympia, WA 243,563 4.0000
1 La Crosse, WI-MN 132,045 4.0000
1 Altoona, PA 127,071 4.0000
1 Columbus, IN 75,855 4.0000
1 Fort Walton Beach-Crestview-Destin, FL 182,076 4.0000
1 Pittsfield, MA 131,528 4.0000
1 Worcester, MA 791,855 4.0000
1 Dubuque, IA 92,547 4.0000
1 Fairbanks, AK 94,439 4.0000
1 Rochester, MN 182,816 4.0000
34 Provo-Orem, UT 495,922 3.9801
35 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 865,982 3.9621
36 Springfield, IL 207,990 3.9389
37 Cedar Rapids, IA 254,571 3.9187
38 Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 845,820 3.8913
39 Elizabethtown, KY 114,956 3.8775
40 Madison, WI 557,744 3.8566
41 Rochester, NY 1,049,836 3.8286
42 St. Cloud, MN 186,075 3.7950
43 Pittsburgh, PA 2,358,313 3.7940
44 Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 812,027 3.7068
45 Wenatchee, WA 108,155 3.6564
46 Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 3,229,181 3.6487
47 Syracuse, NY 658,811 3.6290
48 Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 376,736 3.6084
49 Jefferson City, MO 147,772 3.5991
50 Raleigh-Cary, NC 1,069,694 3.5356
51 Charlottesville, VA 197,279 3.4432
52 Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO 445,626 3.4362
53 Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 541,758 3.4270
54 Eau Claire, WI 158,847 3.3870
55 Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME 513,139 3.3848
56 Lynchburg, VA 248,742 3.3824
57 Knoxville, TN 685,335 3.3725
58 Grand Forks, ND-MN 98,107 3.3194
59 Burlington-South Burlington, VT 209,381 3.2610
60 Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN 2,110,398 3.2515
61 St. Joseph, MO-KS 126,030 3.2371
62 St. Louis, MO-IL 2,792,309 3.2217
63 Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 165,838 3.2206
64 Richmond, VA 1,235,365 3.2072
65 Binghamton, NY 252,181 3.2037
66 Idaho Falls, ID 124,736 3.1966
67 Winchester, VA-WV 125,382 3.1908
68 Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 1,137,266 3.1900
69 Topeka, KS 231,386 3.1704
70 Wichita Falls, TX 150,953 3.1323
71 Evansville, IN-KY 355,854 3.1250
72 Logan, UT-ID 119,575 3.1045
73 Kennewick-Richland-Pasco, WA 238,406 3.1024
74 Salt Lake City, UT 1,090,848 3.0831
75 Baltimore-Towson, MD 2,683,160 3.0749
76 Champaign-Urbana, IL 228,688 3.0731
77 Canton-Massillon, OH 405,334 3.0715
78 Amarillo, TX 245,177 3.0201
79 Peoria, IL 376,046 3.0155
80 San Angelo, TX 109,673 3.0153
81 Grand Junction, CO 142,284 3.0000
81 Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 496,053 3.0000
81 San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA 3,022,468 3.0000
81 Akron, OH 703,093 3.0000
81 Kingston, NY 182,782 3.0000
81 Lebanon, PA 131,341 3.0000
81 Warner Robins, GA 134,880 3.0000
81 San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA 265,577 3.0000
81 Sherman-Denison, TX 119,111 3.0000
81 Boulder, CO 290,177 3.0000
81 Sandusky, OH 77,454 3.0000
81 Cheyenne, WY 89,221 3.0000
81 Barnstable Town, MA 217,483 3.0000
81 Ames, IA 87,594 3.0000
81 Jacksonville, NC 169,207 3.0000
81 Williamsport, PA 116,376 3.0000
81 Bremerton-Silverdale, WA 247,336 3.0000
81 Manchester-Nashua, NH 399,555 3.0000
81 Casper, WY 73,520 3.0000
81 Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 905,342 3.0000
81 Columbia, MO 168,187 3.0000
81 Lancaster, PA 511,250 3.0000
81 Great Falls, MT 80,562 3.0000
81 Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 809,080 3.0000
81 Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA 474,047 3.0000
81 Owensboro, KY 113,588 3.0000
81 Bay City, MI 108,156 3.0000
81 Lubbock, TX 276,139 3.0000
81 Fort Collins-Loveland, CO 291,162 3.0000
81 Ithaca, NY 100,612 3.0000
81 Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY 666,353 3.0000
81 State College, PA 151,411 3.0000
81 Janesville, WI 159,964 3.0000
81 Bangor, ME 152,934 3.0000
81 Midland, TX 132,103 3.0000
81 Coeur d'Alene, ID 134,851 3.0000
81 Utica-Rome, NY 298,865 3.0000
81 Iowa City, IA 148,620 3.0000
81 Waco, TX 229,587 3.0000
81 Billings, MT 154,044 3.0000
81 Erie, PA 279,234 3.0000
81 Honolulu, HI 936,984 3.0000
81 Elmira, NY 88,708 3.0000
81 Panama City-Lynn Haven, FL 166,798 3.0000
125 Sioux City, IA-NE-SD 141,794 2.9946
126 Roanoke, VA 304,995 2.9500
127 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 1,793,888 2.9392
128 Abilene, TX 163,092 2.9175
129 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 5,416,691 2.9049
130 Springfield, MO 427,566 2.8676
131 Anchorage, AK 368,414 2.7716
132 Charleston, WV 304,033 2.7428
133 Morgantown, WV 125,691 2.7376
134 Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH 4,489,250 2.7243
135 Columbus, OH 1,798,377 2.7116
136 Johnson City, TN 195,735 2.7052
137 Oklahoma City, OK 1,218,920 2.6999
138 Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR 134,447 2.6798
139 Kansas City, MO-KS 1,999,718 2.6498
140 Boise City-Nampa, ID 598,730 2.6143
141 Harrisonburg, VA 122,328 2.6125
142 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 5,911,638 2.6076
143 Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 681,812 2.5972
144 Columbia, SC 744,145 2.5775
145 Duluth, MN-WI 278,337 2.5667
146 Wheeling, WV-OH 148,354 2.5501
147 Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT 1,203,823 2.5247
148 Tulsa, OK 917,367 2.5013
149 Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 264,648 2.4871
150 Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 1,541,541 2.4844
151 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 6,154,265 2.4513
152 Asheville, NC 416,276 2.4397
153 Terre Haute, IN 172,066 2.4387
154 Longview, TX 210,226 2.4314
155 San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA 4,244,889 2.4104
156 Rapid City, SD 123,078 2.4088
157 Wichita, KS 609,383 2.4045
158 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 1,663,070 2.3926
159 Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL 146,208 2.3724
160 Lexington-Fayette, KY 459,761 2.3708
161 Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA 161,013 2.3630
162 Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 3,356,089 2.3267
163 Baton Rouge, LA 787,961 2.3224
164 Victoria, TX 114,094 2.3106
165 Jackson, MS 533,673 2.2958
166 Cumberland, MD-WV 102,434 2.2714
167 Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA 307,637 2.2521
168 Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH 287,112 2.2380
169 Indianapolis-Carmel, IN 1,717,259 2.2101
170 Fort Smith, AR-OK 294,478 2.2064
171 San Antonio, TX 2,057,782 2.1980
172 Huntsville, AL 401,694 2.1957
173 Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX 388,448 2.1907
174 Albuquerque, NM 862,165 2.1827
175 Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 1,539,897 2.1734
176 Pocatello, ID 88,334 2.1728
177 Winston-Salem, NC 468,922 2.1679
178 Athens-Clarke County, GA 188,932 2.1668
179 College Station-Bryan, TX 219,058 2.1557
180 Bloomington, IN 189,263 2.1149
181 Dayton, OH 843,218 2.0843
182 Montgomery, AL 370,554 2.0801
183 Fort Wayne, IN 412,067 2.0801
184 Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC 1,687,440 2.0776
185 Lake Charles, LA 196,414 2.0371
186 Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 772,621 2.0137
187 Prescott, AZ 209,260 2.0000
187 Auburn-Opelika, AL 135,010 2.0000
187 Racine, WI 194,736 2.0000
187 Napa, CA 134,051 2.0000
187 Naples-Marco Island, FL 316,931 2.0000
187 Gainesville, GA 175,001 2.0000
187 Lawton, OK 119,902 2.0000
187 Tyler, TX 203,393 2.0000
187 Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 323,831 2.0000
187 Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 540,583 2.0000
187 Palm Coast, FL 91,806 2.0000
187 Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA 206,559 2.0000
187 Monroe, MI 152,784 2.0000
187 Monroe, LA 174,957 2.0000
187 Sumter, SC 106,601 2.0000
187 Missoula, MT 107,288 2.0000
187 Mansfield, OH 125,980 2.0000
187 Springfield, OH 139,374 2.0000
187 Alexandria, LA 152,475 2.0000
187 Jackson, TN 114,171 2.0000
187 Lafayette, LA 267,302 2.0000
187 El Paso, TX 772,280 2.0000
187 Lima, OH 106,586 2.0000
187 Atlantic City, NJ 273,162 2.0000
187 Ann Arbor, MI 343,947 2.0000
187 Michigan City-La Porte, IN 110,937 2.0000
187 St. George, UT 134,033 2.0000
187 Elkhart-Goshen, IN 196,855 2.0000
187 Muncie, IN 117,344 2.0000
187 Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA 115,231 2.0000
187 Ocean City, NJ 97,684 2.0000
187 Trenton-Ewing, NJ 364,445 2.0000
187 Goldsboro, NC 120,102 2.0000
187 Lawrence, KS 109,052 2.0000
187 Lewiston-Auburn, ME 107,882 2.0000
187 Farmington, NM 127,517 2.0000
187 Spokane, WA 461,262 2.0000
187 New Haven-Milford, CT 856,688 2.0000
187 Dothan, AL 142,718 2.0000
187 Corvallis, OR 84,158 2.0000
187 Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA 256,901 2.0000
187 Odessa, TX 133,015 2.0000
187 Punta Gorda, FL 159,385 2.0000
187 Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH 162,214 2.0000
187 Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA 416,051 2.0000
232 Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH 125,101 1.9467
233 Lansing-East Lansing, MI 463,602 1.9463
234 Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 544,180 1.9376
235 Gainesville, FL 260,930 1.9361
236 Tuscaloosa, AL 213,754 1.9244
237 Denver-Aurora, CO 2,464,415 1.9241
238 Bowling Green, KY 121,861 1.9008
239 Brunswick, GA 109,099 1.8734
240 South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI 318,951 1.8356
241 Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 571,975 1.8331
242 Clarksville, TN-KY 263,531 1.8314
243 Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 1,261,825 1.8132
244 Austin-Round Rock, TX 1,627,571 1.8109
245 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA 18,700,715 1.7916
246 Jonesboro, AR 118,032 1.7907
247 Durham, NC 488,508 1.7819
248 Birmingham-Hoover, AL 1,115,485 1.7718
249 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX 5,709,313 1.7387
250 Wilmington, NC 349,522 1.7274
251 New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA 1,105,020 1.7211
252 Savannah, GA 335,980 1.7103
253 Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI 4,345,978 1.6882
254 Charleston-North Charleston, SC 641,930 1.6685
255 Florence, SC 203,499 1.6629
256 Toledo, OH 653,650 1.6395
257 Danville, VA 106,934 1.5905
258 Shreveport-Bossier City, LA 393,350 1.5788
259 Hattiesburg, MS 139,092 1.5539
260 Sarasota-Bradenton-Venice, FL 694,819 1.5414
261 Morristown, TN 134,876 1.5414
262 Orlando-Kissimmee, FL 2,083,626 1.5406
263 Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 384,583 1.4900
264 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA 5,125,113 1.4835
265 Decatur, AL 151,867 1.4509
266 Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 362,665 1.4223
267 Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA 2,107,092 1.4044
268 Columbus, GA-AL 290,204 1.3588
269 Lafayette, IN 197,590 1.3377
270 Joplin, MO 172,590 1.3335
271 Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH 2,086,589 1.3313
272 Chattanooga, TN-GA 518,288 1.3292
273 Kokomo, IN 99,458 1.3244
274 Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI 9,384,661 1.3080
275 Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 2,745,350 1.2938
276 Tallahassee, FL 360,391 1.2849
277 Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA 1,602,822 1.2731
278 Springfield, MA 691,119 1.2210
279 Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC 621,286 1.1896
280 Gulfport-Biloxi, MS 241,122 1.1759
281 Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA 2,170,801 1.1755
282 Rockford, IL 347,539 1.1541
283 Cleveland, TN 113,882 1.1466
284 Valdosta, GA 134,631 1.0994
285 Jacksonville, FL 1,319,195 1.0897
286 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 4,080,707 1.0807
287 Reno-Sparks, NV 416,860 1.0096
288 Battle Creek, MI 137,112 1.0000
288 Spartanburg, SC 278,167 1.0000
288 Port St. Lucie, FL 413,981 1.0000
288 Rome, GA 95,810 1.0000
288 Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC 258,267 1.0000
288 El Centro, CA 168,052 1.0000
288 Longview, WA 101,244 1.0000
288 Redding, CA 176,906 1.0000
288 Santa Fe, NM 141,702 1.0000
288 Gadsden, AL 104,066 1.0000
288 Hot Springs, AR 95,290 1.0000
288 Hinesville-Fort Stewart, GA 76,996 1.0000
288 Pine Bluff, AR 101,419 1.0000
288 Brownsville-Harlingen, TX 393,566 1.0000
288 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI 157,232 1.0000
288 Flagstaff, AZ 131,824 1.0000
288 Ocala, FL 326,833 1.0000
288 Bellingham, WA 195,993 1.0000
288 Vallejo-Fairfield, CA 410,042 1.0000
288 Greenville, NC 182,542 1.0000
288 Greeley, CO 242,860 1.0000
288 Jackson, MI 161,569 1.0000
288 Decatur, IL 110,719 1.0000
288 Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 135,518 1.0000
288 Chico, CA 218,635 1.0000
288 Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI 202,336 1.0000
288 Bend, OR 154,568 1.0000
288 Flint, MI 433,054 1.0000
288 Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ 199,177 1.0000
288 Laredo, TX 240,346 1.0000
288 Las Vegas-Paradise, NV 1,895,521 1.0000
288 Kankakee-Bradley, IL 112,100 1.0000
288 Las Cruces, NM 201,670 1.0000
288 Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI 173,223 1.0000
288 Mobile, AL 408,620 1.0000
288 Greensboro-High Point, NC 709,142 1.0000
288 Dalton, GA 139,835 1.0000
288 Modesto, CA 509,682 1.0000
288 Pascagoula, MS 159,143 1.0000
288 Danville, IL 82,033 1.0000
288 Merced, CA 250,699 1.0000
288 Anderson, IN 131,444 1.0000
288 Fayetteville, NC 357,122 1.0000
288 Burlington, NC 147,072 1.0000
288 Anderson, SC 183,691 1.0000
288 Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 606,165 1.0000
288 Carson City, NV 55,375 1.0000
288 Anniston-Oxford, AL 117,149 1.0000
288 Eugene-Springfield, OR 347,156 1.0000
289 Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL 445,778 0.9949
290 Macon, GA 231,172 0.9767
291 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 5,478,869 0.8702
292 Albany, GA 157,528 0.7407
293 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA 12,723,781 0.6992
294 Memphis, TN-MS-AR 1,301,248 0.6796
295 Salisbury, MD 123,362 0.6423
296 Rocky Mount, NC 150,649 0.6266
297 Salem, OR 383,639 0.5767
298 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 4,114,751 0.5127
299 Corpus Christi, TX 423,717 0.4217
300 Medford, OR 200,587 0.0000
300 Yakima, WA 236,542 0.0000
300 Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ 155,456 0.0000
300 Yuba City, CA 164,580 0.0000
300 Tucson, AZ 964,462 0.0000
300 Bakersfield, CA 815,693 0.0000
300 Lakeland, FL 590,116 0.0000
300 Madera, CA 147,738 0.0000
300 McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 736,973 0.0000
300 Fresno, CA 908,830 0.0000
300 Salinas, CA 407,435 0.0000
300 Visalia-Porterville, CA 429,404 0.0000
300 Stockton, CA 673,613 0.0000
300 Hanford-Corcoran, CA 151,122 0.0000
300 Pueblo, CO 156,244 0.0000
300 Yuma, AZ 190,526 0.0000